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There are many forms of polyneuropathy, the most common of which is peripheral polyneuropathy. This disease can affect most nerves in the body, causing pain, numbness, itching, and muscle tremors, reducing the patient\’s quality of life.
Polyneuritis (or polyneuritis) has diverse symptoms depending on the location of the affected nerve and the cause of the disease. So what is polyneuropathy? What is the cause and treatment?
What is polyneuropathy?
Polyneuritis is damage to many common nerves in the extremities, symmetrically on both sides of the body, occurring due to disease or complications after treatment. This pathology occurs simultaneously in peripheral nerves or cranial nerves. Among them, peripheral polyneuropathy is more common.
The peripheral nervous system has the function of receiving signals from the outside and sending them to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Then, reflexes from the central nervous system are sent back to the organs thanks to peripheral nerves. Therefore, when the peripheral nerve system is damaged, it will cause symptoms such as numbness, tingling in the limbs or spread to other areas of the body. In addition, axons of peripheral nerves also have the function of transporting nutrients to target organs, so when peripheral nerve damage causes muscle atrophy.
People with polyneuritis often only seek medical attention when they experience pain, itching, numbness, and tingling under the skin. Before turning chronic, most of these symptoms may only recur with low frequency, or disappear on their own if the condition is not too serious.
Types of polyneuropathy
Polyneuropathy affects many nerves that control sensation in an area of the skin, muscle groups and several other organs in the body. When these nerves are damaged, they will not be able to perform their function of sending signals to the brain. However, polyneuritis rarely affects important nerves in the brain and spine. Polyneuropathy is divided into two main types: acute and chronic.
1. Acute polyneuropathy
Symptoms of acute polyneuritis often occur suddenly after a gastrointestinal infection, respiratory infection, after an injury or a change in the body\’s immune system, typically as a stinging sensation under the body. skin, numbness in the limbs, and itching appear at a strong level right from the beginning. Acute polyneuropathy often occurs when the patient has an autoimmune reaction or an infection causes nerve damage. In particular, Guillain-Barré syndrome can also be the cause of this disease.
Usually, acute polyneuropathy can be treated successfully in the short term. The risk of recurrence depends on many factors such as lifestyle, living habits, nutrition, and health of the patient. Therefore, to ensure that acute polyneuritis is cured or well controlled, patients need to have regular check-ups as prescribed by the doctor.
2. Chronic polyneuropathy
Chronic symptoms occur at increasing levels with prolonged frequency. Therefore, people with chronic polyneuritis need to persevere in treatment to receive optimal results. Chronic polyneuropathy can occur for many reasons. Among them, kidney failure and diabetes are common causes. However, there are still many cases diagnosed with chronic polyneuritis but the exact cause of the disease cannot be determined.
Complications of polyneuropathy
Polyneuropathy can lead to some typical complications such as:
Frequent falls and susceptibility to injury: Polyneuropathy will cause muscle weakness, loss of balance and gradually reduced coordination between limbs. From there, it increases the risk of falling, leaving many injuries on the patient\’s body.
Skin damage and burns: Numbness and loss of sensation on the skin are common symptoms of polyneuropathy. Patients will often lose sensation on their skin, leading to accidental skin damage or burns.
Infection: All complications such as damage, skin burns, and other injuries to the body caused by polyneuritis, if not properly cleaned and treated, have the potential to lead to infection. even necrosis.
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